Age of Industrialisation Class 10 History Chapter 4 Exercise

Class 10 History Chapter 4 is “The Age of Industrialisation” . NCERT Solution and mcq question of Age of Industrialisation Class 10 are provided here.

The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 History Chapter 4

Chapter 4 of History NCERT Text book is “The Age of Industrialisation” . This chapter of class 10 history consists of the topics – The Age of Industrialisation, Before the Industrial Revolution, The Pace of Industrial Change, Hand Labour and Steam Power, Industrialisation in the Colonies, The Age of Indian Textiles, The Age of Indian Textiles, The Early Entrepreneurs, Market for Goods ,etc

Class 10 History Chapter 4 : The Age of Industrialisation [ NCERT Solution ]

Chapter Chapter 2 : Nationalism in India
SubjectHistory – Social Science
Class 10
Study MaterialNCERT Solution ( Intext and End Exercise )
Number of QuestionsTotal 7 Questions
(a) Write in Brief – 3 questions
(b) Discuss – 4 Questions
Text Book NameIndia and the Contemporary World II
( NCERT Text Book in History for Class 10 )

Write in Brief ( 3 Questions )

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 1 : Explain the following:
a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
Answer :
When the Spinning Jenny was introduced in the woollen industry, women who survived on hand spinning began attacking the new machines. This conflict over the introduction of the jenny continued for a long time.

b) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.
Answer :
With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing. But merchants could not expand production within towns. This was because here urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful.
These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people into the trade. Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products.
It was therefore difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns. So they turned to the countryside

c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century.
Answer :
The European companies gradually gained power – first securing a variety of concessions from local courts, then the monopoly rights to trade. This resulted in a decline of the old ports of Surat and Hoogly through which local merchants had operated.
Exports from these ports fell dramatically, the credit that had financed the earlier trade began drying up, and the local bankers slowly went bankrupt. In the last years of the seventeenth century, the gross value of trade that passed through Surat had been Rs 16 million. By the 1740s it had slumped to Rs 3 million.

d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.
Answer :
The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 2 : Write True or False against each statement:
a) At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
Answer :
False
Correct Statement : At the end of the nineteenth century, less than 20 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.

b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.
Answer :
True , The statement is correct.

c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.
Answer :
False

d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.
Answer :
True, the statement is correct.

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 3 :
Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation

Answer :
The early phase of industrialisation during which production was not carried in industries or factories and was carried by family members at their houses was known as proto-industrialisation.

Discuss ( 4 Questions )

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 1 :
Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?

Answer :
Some industrialists in the 19th century Europe preferred hand labour over machines because of the following reasons :
1. Poor peasants and migrants who moved to cities were in search of work and were ready to work at low wages . As they demanded low wages and were in plenty, so the industrialists had no problem of labour shortage or wage costs. Therefore they did not introduced expensive machines instead of hand labour.

2. In many industries the demand for labours was seasonal. For example : gas works and breweries were busy in cold months. In all such industries where production fluctuated with season , industrialist usually preferred hand labour, employing workers for the season.
3. A range of products could be produced only with hand labour because machines were oriented to produce uniform products . So for this industrialist preferred hand labour.
4. In Victorian Britain, the upper classes preferred things produces by hands. Handmade products came to symbolise class and refinement . So in order to earn huge profits, industrialist preferred hand labour.

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 2 :
How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?

Answer :
1. The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.

2. It prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers. One way of doing this was through the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastha. They could not take it to any other trader.

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 3 :
Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter

Answer :
Students have to do this question on their own on the basis of understanding of this chapter.

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 4 :
Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?

Answer :
1. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.
2. As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items.
3. New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. Over the war years industrial production boomed.