Print Culture and the Modern World Class 10 History Exercise

Class 10 History Chapter 5 is “Print Culture and the Modern World” . NCERT Solution and mcq question of Print Culture and the Modern World Class 10 are provided here.

Print Culture and the Modern World Class 10 History Chapter 5

Chapter 5 of Social Science History NCERT Text book is “Print Culture and the Modern World” . This chapter of class 10 history consists of the topics – Print Culture and the Modern World, The First Printed Books, Print Comes to Europe, The Print Revolution and Its Impact, Religious Debates and the Fear of Print, India and the World of Print, Manuscripts Before the Age of Print, New Forms of Publication, etc.

Class 10 History Chapter 5 : Print Culture and the Modern World [ NCERT Solution ]

Chapter Chapter 5 : Print Culture and the Modern World
SubjectHistory – Social Science
Class 10
Study MaterialNCERT Solution ( Intext and End Exercise )
Number of QuestionsTotal 7 Questions
(a) Write in Brief – 3 questions
(b) Discuss – 4 Questions
Text Book NameIndia and the Contemporary World II
( NCERT Text Book in History for Class 10 )

Write in Brief ( 3 questions )

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 1 : Give reasons for the following:
a) Woodblock print only came to Europe after 1295.
Answer :
In 1295, Marco Polo, a great explorer, returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China. China already had the technology of woodblock printing. Marco Polo brought this knowledge back with him. Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks, and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe.

b) Martin Luther was in favour of print and spoke out in praise of it.
Answer :
Martin Luther was a protestant reformer. He was grateful to printing because through printing he was able to spread his ideas against practices and rituals of roman catholic church . For this he wrote a book “95 Theses” and got printed so he said “Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one “

c) The Roman Catholic Church began keeping an Index of Prohibited books from the mid-sixteenth century.
Answer :
When the Roman Church began its inquisition to repress heretical ideas, Menocchio was hauled up twice and ultimately executed. The Roman Church, troubled by such effects of popular readings and questionings of faith, imposed severe controls over publishers and booksellers and began to maintain an Index of Prohibited Books from 1558.

d) Gandhi said the fight for Swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech, liberty of the press, and freedom of association.
Answer :
Gandhi said the fight for Swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech, liberty of the press, and freedom of association. The Government of India is now seeking to crush the three powerful vehicles of expressing and cultivating public opinion. The fight for Swaraj, for Khilafat means a fight for this threatened freedom before all else.

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 2 : Write short notes to show what you know about:
a) The Gutenberg Press
Answer :
Gutenberg learnt the art of polishing stones, become a master goldsmith and drawing on his knowledge he adopted this technology to design his innovation. The olive press provided the model for printing press and moulds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet. By 1448, he perfected the system. The first book he printed was bible .He printed 180 copies in three years. At the time it was the fastest production . It could print 250 sheets on on side per hour.

Gutenberg developed metal types for each of the 26 characters of the Roman alphabet and devised a way of moving them around so as to compose different words of the text. This came to be known as the moveable type printing machine, and it remained the basic print technology over the next 300 years. Books could now be produced much faster than was possible when each print block was prepared by carving a piece of wood by hand.

b) Erasmus’s idea of the printed book
Answer :
Erasmus, a Latin scholar and a Catholic reformer, who criticised the excesses of Catholicism but kept his distance from Luther, expressed a deep anxiety about printing.

He wrote in Adages (1508): “To what corner of the world do they not fly, these swarms of new books? It may be that one here and there contributes something worth knowing, but the very multitude of them is hurtful to scholarship, because it creates a glut, and even in good things satiety is most harmful … [printers] fill the world with books, not just trifling things (such as I write, perhaps), but stupid, ignorant, slanderous, scandalous, raving, irreligious and seditious books, and the number of them is such that even the valuable publications lose their value.

c) The Vernacular Press Act
Answer :
In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act was passed, modelled on the Irish Press Laws. It provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular press. From now on the government kept regular track of the vernacular newspapers published in different provinces.
When a report was judged as seditious, the newspaper was warned, and if the warning was ignored, the press was liable to be seized and the printing machinery confiscated.

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 3 :
What did the spread of print culture in nineteenth century India mean to:

a) Women
Answer :
When writers wrote about women’s feelings and their lives the numbers of women readers increased. To make them literate number of schools and colleges were set up.

Many women writers like Rashsundari Debi, Tarabai Shinde, Pandita Ramabai, etc. wrote about the poor conditions of women education, widowhood, widow remarriage. Some books were published to teach women good qualities which omen should have .

b) The poor
Answer :
Print reached to poor in 19th century through small and cheap books and public libraries . Most of the books were written on caste and class discrimination . Jyotiba Phule, B.R ambedkar , E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker (Periyar) etc, were some of the writers who wrote about caste and class discrimination.

Poor factory workers also expressed their feelings through print. Kashibaba, a kanpur mill worker wrote about links between caste and class exploitation. In his book “Chhote aur bade Ka Sawal” (1938).

Another book called “Sacchi Kavitayein ” was published by another Kanpur will worker under the name of “Sudarshanchakra” (1935-1955). Bangalore mill workers setup libraries to educate themselves with the help of social reformers.

c) Reformers
Answer :
1. Reformers spread their ideas to reform the society through newspapers periodicals and books. For example : Raja Ram Mohan Roy published “Samvad Komudi” in 1851 to highlight the problem of widows.
2. Many Women wrote about their experiences and problems in Bengali and Marathi.

3. Social reformers like Jyotiba Phule wrote about poor conditions of low caste in his book “Gulamgiri” in 1871.
4. B.R. Ambedkar and E.V. Ramaswamy Naiker (Periyar) also wrote against the system.
5. Social reformers also sponsored libraries to educate mill workers.

Discuss ( 4 Questions )

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 1 :
Why did some people in eighteenth century Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism?

Answer :
1. Print helped in spreading news ideas of scientists and philosophers among the common people. Ancient and Medieval scientific books were completed and published.
2. Scientific discoveries that of Isaac Newton were published which influenced a large number of people.
3. Ideas given by thinkers like Voltaire , Rousseau were published through popular literature.

4. By the end of 18th century books became a medium of spreading progress and enlightenment . It was believed that the books could liberate society from despotism and tyranny .
5. Ideas of thinkers like that of Martin Luther who attacked the authority of church; Rousseau who refuted the power of state, were popularised through print.
6. The print made public aware of reasoning. Now people questioned the existing ideas and beliefs.

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 2 :
Why did some people fear the effect of easily available printed books? Choose one example from Europe and one from India
.
Answer :
Some people had fear about the book. They thought that the circulation of books would have a negative impact on people’s minds. They feared that the books would bring rebellious thoughts and irreligious thoughts in their minds. Scholars has a fear of loss of authority of valuable literature. This can be proved by the following examples:-

Martin Luther , a German monk openly criticized many of practices and rituals of “Roman Catholic Church” through his book “Ninety five Theses” in 1517. This led to division within the church and protestant reformation.

Many conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widow and Muslims believed that an educated women could get spoiled by reading Urdu romances.

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 3 :
What were the effects of the spread of print culture for poor people in nineteenth century India?

Answer :
1. Print reached to poor in 19th century through small and cheap books and public libraries . Most of the books were written on caste and class discrimination . Jyotiba Phule, B.R ambedkar , E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker (Periyar) etc, were some of the writers who wrote about caste and class discrimination.

2. Poor factory workers also expressed their feelings through print. Kashibaba, a kanpur mill worker wrote about links between caste and class exploitation. In his book “Chhote aur bade Ka Sawal” (1938).

3. Another book called “Sacchi Kavitayein ” was published by another Kanpur will worker under the name of “Sudarshanchakra” (1935-1955).
4. Bangalore mill workers setup libraries to educate themselves with the help of social reformers.

Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question 4 :
Explain how print culture assisted the growth of nationalism in India.

Answer :
1. The new ideas and debates : New ideas about reforms appeared in the newspapers and other printed material. People read them and gave their own ideas leading to a debate among themselves .This helped in the growth of Nationalism.

2. Connecting Various Communities : When people read news from different parts of the country they felt that they belong to India and not only to that particular part where they were living. Hence it created a pan-Indian identity.

3. Print and Newspapers. Even though the government tried to control the publishing of newspapers and periodicals through censorships but number of nationalist newspapers increased all over India. These newspapers spread nationalist ideas and reported misrule of British government in India.

For Example – When Bal Gangadhar Tilak wrote about deportation of Punjab revolutionaries in his newspaper “The Kesari” . He was imprisoned in 1908 leading to widespread protest all over India.

4. Various novels and images : Novels like Bankim’s Anand Math and Munshi Premchand’s ‘Godam’ create a sense of Pan-Indian belongings . Similarly images of Bharatmata produced by Raja Ravi Verma and Rabindranath Tagore produced a sense of nationalism in Indians . Cartoons were used to criticise the Imperial rules.