Nationalism in India Class 10 History Chapter 2 Exercise

Class 10 History Chapter 2 is “Nationalism in India” . NCERT Solution and mcq question of Nationalism in India Class 10 are provided here.

Nationalism in India Class 10 History Chapter 2

Chapter 2 of History NCERT Text book is “Nationalism in India” . This chapter of class 10 history consists of the topics – Nationalism in India, The idea of Satyagraha, The Rowlatt Act, Different strands within the movement, Swaraj in the Plantations, The salt March and Civil Disobedience Movement, The sense of collective belongings, etc

Class 10 History Chapter 2 : Nationalism in India [ NCERT Solution ]

Chapter Chapter 2 : Nationalism in India
SubjectHistory – Social Science
Class 10
Study MaterialNCERT Solution ( Intext and End Exercise )
Number of QuestionsTotal 8 Questions
(a) Write in Brief – 4 questions
(b) Discuss – 4 Questions
Text Book NameIndia and the Contemporary World II
( NCERT Text Book in History for Class 10 )

Write in Brief ( 4 questions )

Nationalism in India Class 10 History chapter 2 Question 1 : Explain:
a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
Answer :
1. In India, as in Vietnam and many other colonies, the growth of modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anti-colonial movement.
2. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
3. The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.

b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
Answer :
1. First of all, the war created a new economic and political situation.
2. It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax introduced.

3. Through the war years prices increased — doubling between 1913 and 1918 — leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
4. Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
5. Then in 1918-t9 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food. This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic.
6. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic.

c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
Answer :
1. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , in 1919 decided to launch nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt (1919).
2. This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
3. It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
4. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi wanted a non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with ‘hartals’ on 6 April.

d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Answer :
In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.

Within the Congress, some leaders were b now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils that had been set up by the Government of India Act of 1919.
They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the councils, argue for reform and also demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic.

C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Part} within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics.
But younger leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose pressed for more radical mass agitation and for full independence.

Nationalism in India Class 10 History chapter 2 Question 2 :
What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?

Answer :
1. Satyagraha gave importance to the need to search for the truth. It suggested that physical force was not necessary to fight against injustice.
2. A Satyagrahi could win the battle through non violent methods by appealing the conscience of the oppressor.
3. In this the Oppressor was persuaded to see the truth instead of being forced to accept the truth through the use of violence.
4. By the struggle that truth was bound to be victorious.

Nationalism in India Class 10 History chapter 2 Question 3 : Write a newspaper report on:
a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Answer :
1. On 13 April the infamous Jallianwala Bagh incident took place. On that day a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh.
2. Some came to protest against the government’s new repressive measures. Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair.

3. Being from outside the city, many villagers were unaware of the martial law that had been imposed.
4. Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds.
5. His object, as he declared later, was to ‘produce a moral effect’, to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.

b) The Simon Commission
Answer :
1. In response to the demand of Indian members in the central Legislative Assembly the British government appointed a commission in 1928 to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.
2. The commission was set up under Sir John Simon, So it was known as Simon Commission.
3. There was no Indian member in the commission, so Indian including Congress and Muslim League decided to Boycott the commission.
4. Indian people organised ‘hartals’ all over the country. They showed Black Flag and shouted slogan “Simon Go back” when it arrived in Bombay and other places.

Nationalism in India Class 10 History chapter 2 Question 4 :
Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.

Answer :

Discuss ( 4 questions )

Nationalism in India Class 10 History chapter 2 Question 1 :
List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.

Answer :
The different social groups which is the non cooperation Movement in 1921 are given below :
1. The Middle class (students, lawyer, teachers, merchants and traders ).
2. Political parties (except justice party )
3. Peasants of Avadh.
4. Tribal Peasant of Andhra Pradesh
5. Plantation Workers

1. Participation of Middle Class : The middle class people like teachers, headmasters, left government controlled schools and college. Lawyers gave up their legal practices. They saw movement as a gateway to freedom from the foreign rule. The foreign goods were boycotted. Foreign clothes were burnt in huge Bonfire. The merchants and trader refused to trade in foreign goods or Finance foreign trade.
The people stopped using foreign clothes.

They wore clothes made in Indian mills or handlooms. As a result the import of foreign clothes went down and production in Indian textile mills and hand looms went up.
But they faced a problem that no alternative institution was available for them so they had to join back government institution. Likewise Khadi cloth was more expensive than mill made clothes and poor cannot afford to buy it.

2. Tribal Peasants of Andhra Pradesh : These peasants joined the movement to protest against the restrictions which had been put on them. Large areas of forest were closed for them. Now they cold not enter in these forests to graze their cattles or to collect food , fuel and fruits.
These steps of the government took away their livelihoods and they felt their traditional rights were also being denied.

When they were asked to begar for road building, they revolted. Their leader was ” Alluri Sita Ram Raju” who was a follower of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi but believed in violence.
The Gudem hills reveals attacked police stations , attempted to kill British officer and carried on guerilla warfare for achieving swaraj.

3. Peasants of Awadh : In Country side in Awadh, the peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra, a sanyasi . Here movement was against the ‘talukdars and Landlords” as they were demanding high rents and other taxes. Peasant had to do begar for the landlords.
They have no security of tenure. These peasants demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and redistribution of land. They socially boycotted the oppressive landlords by organizing “Nai – dhobi bandhs” to deny them the service of barber , cobblers, washer man, etc.

The Awadh Kisan Sabha was setup which was headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Bab Ramchandra and Others. The houses of talukdars and rich merchants were attacked . Local leaders told peasants not to pay taxes in the name of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

Nationalism in India Class 10 History chapter 2 Question 2 :
Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism
.
Answer :
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi sent a letter of 11 demands to Viceroy Irwin. The demand were of General Interest as well as some demands related to specific class . This was done so that all the classes of India could relate themselves to the movement . Out of these the most important demand was that to abolish the salt tax.

Tax on salt, a common , the most essential item of everyone was unjust. When no reply was received by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , he started salt march with 78 followers from Sabarmati to Dandi . On his way he addressed meetings and asked people to disobey the British rule peacefully. On6th April 1930, he reached Dandi , broke salt law by manufacturing salt.

This step of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi woke the nation. Breaking salt law became a symbol to oppose the British rule. It was the starting of Civil disobedience movement . And after this, thousands broke salt law, foreign goods were boycotted, taxes were not paid.

Nationalism in India Class 10 History chapter 2 Question 3 :
Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.

Answer :
Important feature of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the large-scale participation of women. During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and 1iquor shops. Many went in Jail. In Urban areas these women were from high cast families; in rural areas they came from rich peasant households.

Nationalism in India Class 10 History chapter 2 Question 4 :
Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates ?

Answer :
Political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates because –
1. Muslim leaders like M.A Jinnah and Sir Mohammed Iqbal asked for separate electorates as they though in joint electorates , Muslims would have little chances to win and Hindu majority would dominate over them in every field. Muslims would lost their identity and culture.

2. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and other leaders wanted joint electorate to make the country united. They knew that separate electorates would be profitable for Britishers. It would help them in their policy of Divide and Rule.