Class 10 Science Chapter 3 Metals and Non Metals Study Notes

Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 3 : Metals and Non Metals are available here for students and teachers for education purpose.

Class 10 Science Chapter 3 Metals and Non Metals

Class 10 Science Chapter 3 is “Metals and Non metals” . This third chapter of science class 10 is very useful for exam point of view. This chapter consists of the topics- Metals and Non Metals, Properties of Metals and Non metals, Alloys, Reactivity Series, Minerals, Ores, Oxides, Ionic Compounds , etc .

Chapter 3 : Metals and Non Metals

ChapterChapter 3 : Metals and Non Metals
SubjectScience
Study MaterialStudy Notes ( Short Notes)
Class10 ( Class – X )
Text bookNCERT Textbook of Science for Class X

Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 3 Metals and Non metals ( Study Notes )

1. Metals : Metals is defined as a substance which is usually hard, shiny and allow the electricity to pass through it.

2. Properties of Metals:
a) Metals Are Ductile
b) Metals are typically malleable or ductile.
c) Melting Point of Metals I very high
d) Metals are hard Metals are good conductor of Electricity and Heat.
e) Metals are generally hard at room temperature.

3. Exceptions of Some Metals
a) Sodium and Lithium are soft and can easily be cut with Knife.
b) Mercury and gallium are liquid at room temperature.
c) Lead is poor conductor of heat.

4. Some Standard Terms related to Metals
a) Metallic Lustre : Metals are lustrous i.e., shiny, or polished surface.
b) Malleability:  Malleability is the property of Metals by which it can be converted into thin sheets by hammering.
c) Ductility :  Ductility is the property of metals by which any metals can be drawn or deformed into wires upon stretching.
d) Conductors: Metals are Conductors . Conductors are those substance which allow electricity to pass through it .

e) Sonorous : Metals are sonorous. Sonorous is the property of metals by which metals produce a sound when hit with another metal.
f) Insulators: Non-Metals are Insulators. Insulators are those substance which don’t allow electricity to pass through it.
g) Alloys : An Alloy is defined as the metallic substance composed of two or more elements . Alloys are formed to increase the properties of Metals.

5. Chemical Properties of Metals
a) Burning of Metal in Air
All Metals combine with Oxygen to form Metals Oxides.
2Cu  +  O2  –> 2CuO
4Al  +  3O2  –> 2Al2O3

b) Reaction of Metal with Water
Metal  +  Water  –>  Metal Oxide   +  Hydrogen
Metal Oxide   +  Water  –> Metal Hydroxide
Examples:  2K  +2H2O  –>  2KOH  +  H2  + Heat
Examples:  2Na  +  2H2O  –> 2NaOH  +  H2  + Heat

c) Reaction of Metals with Acids
Metal +  Dilute Acid  –>  Salt  +  Hydrogen gas
For some acids like Nitric acid, hydrogen gas is not produced when Metal is reacted with Nitric Acid.

d) Reaction of Metals with Solutions of Other Metal Salts
Metal  A  +  Salt Solution of B  –> Salt Solution of A  +  Metal B
Displacement Reaction takes place.

6. Non Metals : Non metals is defined as a substance which are not malleable nor ductile and are bad conductor of electricity.

7. Properties of Non-Metals
a) Nonmetals are neither malleable nor ductile.
b) Nonmetals are bad conductors of electricity. Exceptions : Graphite is good conductor of electricity.

8. Reactivity Series : Reactivity Series is a series of Metals in which the metals are arranged in the decreasing order of their reactivity.

Potassium (K)              ——    Most Reactive
Sodium (Na)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Aluminium (Al)
Zinc (Zn)
Iron (Fe)
Lead (Pb)
Hydrogen (H)
Copper (Cu)
Mercury (Hg)
Silver (Ag)
Gold  (Au)              ——         Least Reactive

9. Ionic Compounds : Compound which are formed by the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal are known as ionic Compounds or Electrovalent Compounds . Example MgCl2

10. Properties of Ionic Compound
a) Physical Nature :  Ionics Compounds are Solid, brittle and break into pieces when pressurised
b) Melting and Boiling Points : Ionic Compounds have high melting and boiling points.
c) Solubility : Ionic Compounds are soluble in water and insoluble in solvents like kerosene , petrol ,etc.
d) Conduction of Electricity : Ionic Compounds does not conduct in solid state . Ionic Compound conduct electricity in the molten state.

11. Amphoteric Oxides : Metal oxides which reacts with  both acids and bases to produce salts and water are known as Amphoteric oxides.
Example Al2O3 , Na2O, K2O
Al2O3  +  6HCl  –>  2AlCl3  +  3H2O

12. Minerals :  The elements/compounds which occur naturally in the earth’s crust are known as minerals.
13. Ores :  Minerals which contain a very high percentage of a particular metal,  and this metal can be extracted from it . Such minerals are known as ores.
Ore of mercury : Cinnabar (HgS)
Ore of Copper  : Cu2S
14. Gangue : The impurities like soil, sand present in the Ores  is known as Gangue.

15. Extraction of Metals of High Reactivity.
a) Metals of High Reactivity are obtained from their ores through the process of Electrolytic Reduction .
b) Electrolytic Reduction  :  The electrolytic reduction is a type of electrolysis  in which electric current is pass through an ionic substance (molten or dissolved )  producing chemical reaction at the electrodes and a decomposition of the materials. The metals are deposited at the cathode.
c) Cathode : The negatively charged electrode (in the process of electrolysis) is known as Cathode.
d) Anode : The Positively charged electrode  is known as Anode.
e) Anode Mud :  The insoluble impurities in the electrolysis process settle down below anode. These impurities are known as Anode Mud.

16. Extraction of Metals of Medium reactivity
a) Metals of medium reactivity can be extracted easily from their ores by three processes namely – Roasting, Calcination and then Reduction Process.
Note : First Roasting process is used then Calcination and at last reduction process.
b) Roasting : The process in which Sulphide Ores are converted into oxides by heating strongly  in presence of excess air is  known as Roasting. Example :
2ZnS  +  3O2   –>  2ZnO  + 2SO2
c) Calcination :  The process in which carbonate ores are converted into oxides by heating strongly in presence of limited air . Example :
ZnCO3   +  Heat  –>  ZnO  +CO2
d) Reduction : The process of removing oxygen is known as reduction . Example  :
ZnO  +  C  –>   Zn  +  CO

17. Extraction of Metals of Low reactivity
a) Metals in the low reactivity series can be extracted from its ores by simply heating it in air.
Example 1  : 2HgS  +  3O2  –>  2HgO   +  2SO2
2HgO –> 2 Hg  +  O2
Example 2 :  2Cu2S  +  3O2  –>  2Cu2O  +2SO2
2Cu2O  +  Cu2–>  6Cu  +  SO218. Corrosion

MetalCorrosion Colour
SilverBlack (Silver Sulphide)
CopperGreen (Copper Carbonate
IronBrown (Rust – Ferric Oxide)

19. Prevention of Corrosion
a) Some of the methods for prevention of Corrosion – Painting, Oiling, Greasing, Alloying, Anodising, Chrome Plating
b) Galvanisation : The process in which a thin layer of Zinc is coated over the surface of metals like steel iron to prevent them from rusting is known as Galvanisation.
c) Alloy : It is a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals or a metal and a non-metal.

Chemical Reaction used in the chapter 3 Metals and Non metals

1) 2Cu  +  O2  →  2CuO
2) 4Al  +  3O2  → 2Al2O3
3) Al2O3   +  6HCl  →  AlCl3  +  3H2O
4) Al2O3  +  2NaOH  →  2NaAlO2    +  H2O
5) Na2O  +  H2O  →  2NaOH
6) K2O  +  H2O  →  2KOH
7) 2K  +  2H2O  →  2KOH  +  H2  +  Heat
8) 2Na  +  2H2O   →  2NaOH  +  H2  + Heat
9) 2Al  +  3H2O  →  Al2O3  +  3H2

10) 3Fe  +  2H2O  →  Fe3O4  +  4H2
11) 2HgS  +  3O2  →  2HgO  +  2SO2
12) 2HgO  →  2Hg  +  O2
13) 2Cu2S  +  3O2  →  2Cu2O  +  2SO2
14) 2Cu2O  +  Cu2S  →  6Cu  +  SO2
15) 2ZnS  +  3O2  →  2Zno  +  2SO2
16) ZnCO3   +  Heat  → ZnO  +  CO2
17) ZnO  + C  →  Zn  +  CO
18) 3MnO2  +  4Al  →  3Mn  +2Al2O3  +  Heat
19) Fe2O3  +  2Al  →  2Fe  +  Al2O3  +  Heat