Life Processes Class 10 Notes Definition Examples Diagrams

Class 10 Science Study Notes Chapter 6 : Life Processes are available here for students and teachers for education purpose.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 is “Life Processes” . This sixth chapter of science class 10 is very useful for exam point of view. This chapter consists of the topics -Life Processes , Nutrition, Respiration, Excretion, Digestion, Double Circulation, Photosynthesis, Nutrition in Amoeba ,Transportation in Plants and Human Beings etc

Chapter 6 : Life Processes

ChapterChapter 6 : Life Processes
Study MaterialStudy Notes ( Short Notes)
Class10 ( Class – X )
Text bookNCERT Textbook of Science for Class X

Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 6 Life Processes ( Study Notes )

1. Life Processes  : The basic functions of life that are performed by a living organism for their survival are known as Life Processes.
Some of the examples of the Life processes are -Respiration, Growth ,  Nutrition , Transportation , etc.

2. Nutrition :  Nutrition is defined as the process which provide food , energy necessary for the life process .
3. Nutritional Process  : Digestion , Excretion , Respiration are some of the Nutritional Processes.

4. Mode of Nutrition
a) Autotrophic Nutrition :  The mode of Nutrition in which the organism makes and synthesise their own food  is known as Autotrophic Mode of nutrition.
• Autotrophs : Those organisms which make their own food are known as Autotrophs
b) Heterotrophic Nutrition :  The mode of   Nutrition in which the Organism depend on other beings for their food is known as Heterotrophic Mode of Nutrition. These organisms depend on the autotrophic beings for their food directly or indirectly.
• Heterotrophs : Those organisms which depends on other beings for their food are known as Heterotrophs .

5. Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is defined as the process in which plants uses CO2 and H2O for the preparation their food in presence of sunlight and chlorophyll .
6CO2  +  12H2O   + Sunlight  + Chlorophyll  à C6H12O6  +  6O2 +  6H2O
Chlorophyll : The green colour pigment present in the  chloroplast is known as Chlorophyll
Chloroplast : Chloroplast is present in the leaf . It’s the place where photosynthesis take place in the leaf .
Glucose : C6H12O6

6. Process included in Photosynthesises
a) Absorption of Light energy by the chlorophyll
b) Conversion of light energy to chemical energy and splitting of water molecule into Hydrogen and Carbohydrates .
c) Reduction of CO2  to Carbohydrates .

7. Stomata : Small pores on the surface of the leaves are known as Stomata

8. Functions of Stomata
a) Exchange of gases namely CO2 and O2  takes place in Stomata
b) Loss of water during transpiration.
c) Guard Cells : Opening of Stomatal pores depends on the guard cells. When water flows in, then guard cell swell which results in Stomatal pores to open.
d) Stomatal pores closes when Guard cells shrinks

9. Nutrition in Amoeba
a) Amoeba takes in food by a finger like extension of the cell surface.
b) The food particle is taken inside forming a food vacuole.
c) Function of Food Vacuole : Inside the Food Vacuole , complex substances are broken down into simpler substances.
d) The undigested food is slowly moved the surface of the cell and then is thrown out in the way it has taken it in .

10. Nutrition in Human Beings
a) Mouth : The food is taken from the mouth . Then it is crushed into pieces by the teeth present inside mouth . The food is mixed thoroughly inside mouth with the help of saliva . The Saliva contains an enzyme known as salivary amylase which helps to convert starch into sugar
b) Elementary Canal :  It is also known as Oesophagus . The food after chewing is transferred to stomach through a tube-like structure known as Elementary Canal. The food moves inside the Elementary canal via a movement known as peristaltic movement.

c) Stomach : Digestion of food takes place in Stomach .
• Gastric Glands release the Hydrochloric acids, pepsin, and mucus .
Mucus protects the inner lining of stomach.
Pepsin breaks down the protein.
Hydrochloric acid makes he medium acidic

d) Small Intestine : It’s the site where complete digestion of protein , carbohydrates and fats takes place.
• Liver secretes the bile juice.
• Pancreas secrets the pancreatic juice.
• Intestinal enzymes convert the carbohydrate into Glucose, Fats into fatty acid and Protein into Amino Acids.
• Bile Juice converts the large fat globules into small fat globules.
• Villi : Villi  are the finger like projections inside the small intestine which absorb the food and transfer to blood vessels which is then transferred to other  parts of body.
• The unabsorbed food is then transferred to Large Intestine

e) Large Intestine: The large intestine is the place where wall of large intestine absorbs more water from the food material which is transferred from small intestine to the large intestine.

f) Anus : The Anus is the place from where the undigested food and the waste material is thrown out of the body of the  organism.

11. Respiration
Respiration can be defined as the process of intake of oxygen and release of the Carbon dioxide and result of which living organism like humans, animal get energy  in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Breathing : Breathing can be defined as the process of taking the air in and out of the lungs.
Inhalation : Intake of Oxygen is known as Inhalation.
Exhalation : Release of Carbon Dioxide is known as Exhalation.
Exchange of gases: Exchange of gases take place in lungs and more specifically in alveoli .
Alveoli : Alveoli are sac like structure where exchange of gases namely Carbon dioxide and Oxygen takes place in lungs.

12. Difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Aerobic RespirationAnaerobic Respiration
Takes place in presence of OxygenTakes place in absence of Oxygen
Takes place in MitochondriaTakes place in Cytoplasm
Energy released is moreEnergy released Is less
38 ATP energy is released2ATP energy is released
End Products are Carbon Dioxide and WaterEnd Products are Alcohol and Lactic Acid
Gases are exchange in the form of respirationGases are not exchange in the form of Respiration
All Mammals perform the Aerobic RespirationSmall Organism like Bacteria , yeast perform Anaerobic Respiration.

13. Break Down of Glucose
• In Absence of Oxygen (in Yeast) : Glucose  –>  Pyruvate  à  Ethanol + CO­2  + Energy
• Lack of Oxygen (in our muscle cells) : Glucose  –>  Pyruvate  à Lactic Acid +  Energy
• In Presence of Oxygen  (in Mitochondria ) : Glucose  –> Pyruvate  à  CO2  + Water  + Energy

14. ATP : ATP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate . ATP is the energy currency of Most cellular processes . ATP is broken down to give a fixed amount of energy which can drive the endothermic reactions taking place in the cell.

15. Transportation in Human Beings
• Heart : Heart is a muscular organ which pump the blood in our blood vessels.
• Pulmonary Vein : Brings the Oxygenated blood from Lungs to the heart
• Aorta : it’s the main Artery which Transfer the Oxygenated pumped blood from Heart to all parts of body.
• Artery : Carry the blood to all the parts of the body  .
• Vein : Collects the blood from each part of the body and transfer to heart.
• Vena cava : It’s a large vein which collects the blood from various parts of the body and transfer it to blood.
• Pulmonary artery : Transfer the deoxygenated blood from the blood to the lungs

16. Transportation in Plants
• Transportation in Plants takes place through Xylem and Phloem.
Translocation : The transport of soluble products in photosynthesis from leaves to all parts off plants is known as Translocation.

17. Difference between Xylem and Phloem

Transport water and minerals  in the plantTransport the food and other material in the various parts of plants
Xylem consists of xylem vessels, xylem fibres and tracheidPhloem consists of phloem fibres, sieve tubes, sieve cells, etc
Transport the water from roots to leavesTransport  the food from leaves to other parts of the Plants.

18. Excretion : Excretion can be defined as the process of removing waste material from the body of the organism

19. Excretion in Human Beings
• Excretion system in Human beings consists of a pair of kidneys , a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra
• Nephron :It is the structural and functional unit of kidney. It is the filtration unit of Kidney.
Blood is filtered from Glomerulus into Bowman Capsules of Nephron.
• The urine is then collected in Urinary Bladder from collecting duct  and is released out through urethra.
• Haemodialysis : The process of purifying blood through an artificial kidney is known as Haemodialysis.

20. Excretion in Plants
• Excretion in Plants takes place by the process of transpiration, falling leaves, barks, release in soil , etc
Waste material of plants is stored in the cell vacuoles like gums which are then removed through falling leaves.
• Transpiration : Transpiration is defined as the process in which plants release the excess water in the environment through stomata .
End products of the plants are Oxygen.