Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 1 Chemical Reaction Equation

Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 1 : Chemical Reactions and equations are available here for students and teachers for education purpose.

Class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations

Class 10 Science Chapter 1 is Chemical Reaction and Chemical Equation. This first chapter of science class 10 is very useful for exam point of view. This chapter consists of the topics – chemical equation, chemical reactions, types of chemical reaction, combination reaction, decomposition reaction, displacement reactions, double displacement reaction, Oxidation, Reduction, Corrosion , Rancidity , etc

Chapter 1 : Chemical Reactions and Equations

Chapter Chapter 1 : Chemical reaction and Equations
SubjectScience
Study MaterialStudy Notes ( Short Notes)
Class 10 10 ( Class – X )
Text bookNCERT Textbook of Science for Class X

Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 1 ( Study Notes )

1. Chemical Reaction : When two or more than two substances react with each other to form a new product , then it known as a chemical reaction.
Example Rusting of Iron, Cooking of food.

2. Chemical Equation :  The Theoretical representation of a chemical reaction in  terms of Reactant and Products is known as the Chemical Equation .
Example : CuO  +  H2  Cu + H2O

3. Balanced Chemical Equations : A Chemical Equation is said to be a Balanced Chemical Equation if the numbers of atoms of each type of element involved in the chemical reaction are same on the reactant and product side .
Example : 4Na  +  O2  2Na2O

4. Combination Reaction : When two or more substance combine together to form a new single product/substance, then such type of chemical reaction is known as Combination Reaction.
Example : CaO  +  H2O  → Ca(OH)  +  Heat

5. Decomposition Reaction : When a single substance decomposes into two or more than two substances , then this type of reaction is known as Decomposition Reaction .
Example :- 2FeSO4  Fe2O3   +SO2   +  SO3

6. Displacement Reaction : When an element  displaces  the element of  other compound , then such type of chemical reaction is known as Displacement Reaction.
Example :  Pb  +  CuCl2  PbCl2  +  Cu


7. Double Displacement Reaction : When two elements displace each other element from their compound, then such type of Chemical reactions is known as double Displacement Reaction.
Example : Na2SO4  +  BaCl2  → BaSO­4  +2NaCl

8. Oxidation : Oxidation is defined as the loss of Hydrogen or gain of oxygen .
Example : 2Cu  +  O 2CuO

9. Reduction : Reduction is defined as the loss of Oxygen or gain of Hydrogen .
Example : CuO  +  H2   +  Heat Cu  +  H2O

10. Redox Reaction : Those reaction in which one reactant is getting oxidised while other is getting reduced are known as Redox Reaction.
Example :  CuO  +  H  Cu  + H2O

11. Corrosion : Corrosion is a natural phenomenon in which the surface of metal is being attacked by the substances around it like moisture, acids, etc.
Example Rusting of Iron

12. Rancidity : Rancidity is defined as the process in which food (especially fatty and oily) gets oxidised and becomes rancid(undesirable.)

13. Ion : An Ion is defined as an  atom or a molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons.
Example : Na+

14. Cation : A positively charged ion is known as Cation.
Example : Na+

15. Anion : A negatively charged ion is known as Anion.
Example : SO42-

16. Precipitation Reaction : Those reactions in which the product is an insoluble salt are known as Precipitation Reaction. This insoluble salt produced in the precipitation reaction is known as a precipitate .

17. Exothermic Reaction :Exothermic Reactions are those reactions in which energy(Heat) is released with the products .
Example : Cao  +  H2   Ca(OH)2  +  Heat

18. Endothermic Reaction : Endothermic Reactions are those reactions in which energy (Heat) is absorbed by the reactants for a chemical reaction to take place.
Example : CuO  +  H2   +  Heat → Cu  +  H2O

19. When silver Chloride is exposed to sunlight , then it turns grey . It is due to the decomposition of Silver Chloride into Silver and Chlorine and this grey colour is silver.

Silver chloride turns grey in sunlight to form silver metal
Fig. Silver chloride turns grey in sunlight to form silver metal

20. Reaction used in black and white photography is given below :-
2AgBr  + Sunlight   → 2Ag  +  Br2 

21. In the displacement reaction, the more reactive element replaces the less reactive element.
We apply paints on iron article to prevent it from getting Oxidized and hence saves it from rusting.

Chemical Reaction used in the Chapter

1) Magnesium  +  Oxygen →    Magnesium  Oxide  
2) Zinc  +  Sulphuric Acid  →  Zinc Sulphate  +  Hydrogen 
3) Zn  + H2SO4  → ZnSO4  +  H2
4) 3Fe  + 4H2O  → Fe3O4  +  4H2
5) CO  +  2H2  → CH3OH

6) 6CO2   +  12H2O  → C6H12O6  +  6O2  +  6H2O
7) Hydrogen + Chlorine → Hydrogen Chloride
8) Barium Chloride + Aluminium → Barium Sulphate  +  Aluminium Chloride
9) Sodium + Water → Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrogen
10) CaO  +  H2O → Ca(OH)2  +  Heat

11) Ca(OH)2  +  CO2  → CaCO3  +  H2O
12) C  +  O2  → CO2
13) 2H2  +  O2  → 2H2O
14) CH4  +  2O2  → CO2 + 2H2O
15) C6H12O6  +  6O2  → 6CO2  +  6H2O + Energy

16) 2FeSO4  → Fe2O3  +  SO2  +  SO3
17) CaCO3  → CaO +CO2
18) 2Pb(NO3)2 → 2PbO  +  4NO2  +  O2
19) 2AgCl → 2Ag + Cl2
20) 2AgBr  → 2Ag  +  Br2
21) Fe  +  CuSO4  → FeSO4  + Cu
22) Zn  +  CuSO4  → ZnSO4  +  Cu

23) Pb  +  CuCl2  → PbCl2  +  Cu
24) Na2SO4   +  BaCl2  → BaSO4  +  2NaCl
25) 2Cu  +  O2  → 2CuO
26) CuO  +  H2  → Cu  +  H2O
27) ZnO  +  C  → Zn  +  CO 
28) MnO2  +  4HCL  → MnCl2  +  2H2O  + Cl2

Chemical Names used in the chapter


1. Magnesium Oxide  : MgO
2. Sulphuric Acid : H2SO4
3. Zinc Sulphate : ZnSO4
4. Iron Oxide (Ferrosoferric Oxide) : Fe3O4
5. Iron Oxide III (Ferric Oxide )  : Fe2O3
6. Methanol  : CH3OH
7. Carbon Dioxide : CO2
8. Water (Dihydrogen Oxide): H2O
9. Glucose : C6H12O6
10. Calcium Oxide (Quick Lime) : CaO

11. Copper Oxide : CuO
12. Calcium Hydroxide (Slaked Lime ) : Ca(OH)2
13. Calcium Carbonate : CaCO3
14. Ferrous(Iron) Sulphate : FeSO4
15. Lead Nitrate :  Pb(NO3)2
16. Lead Oxide : PbO
17. Nitrogen Dioxide : NO2
18. Silver Chloride : AgCl
19. Silver Bromide : AgBr
20. Bromine Gas : Br2

21. Copper Sulphate : CuSO4
22. Zinc Sulphate : ZnSO4
23. Copper Chloride : CuCl2
24. Lead Chloride : PbCl2
25. Sodium Sulphate : Na2SO4
26. Barium Chloride : BaCl2
27. Barium Sulphate : BaSO4
28. Aluminium Oxide : Al2O3
29. Sodium Chloride : NaCl