Class 10 History Chapter 1 is “The rise of Nationalism in Europe” . NCERT Solution and mcq question of The rise of nationalism in Europe are provided here.
|Chapter||Chapter 1 : The Rise of Nationalism in Europe|
|Subject||History – Social Science|
|Study Material||NCERT Solution ( Intext and End Exercise )|
|Number of Questions||Total 10 Questions|
(a) Write in Brief – 5 questions
(b) Discuss – 5 Questions
|Text Book Name||India and the Contemporary World II |
( NCERT Text Book in History for Class 10 )
Write in Brief ( 5 Questions )
Write a note on:
a) Guiseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini was the Italian revolutionary. Born in Genoa in 1807, he became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. As a young man of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.
It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty.
Following his model, secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland. Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives.
Metternich described him as the most dangerous enemy of our social order.
During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic.
He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals.
b) Count Camillo de Cavour
Chief Minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat.
Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian.
Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
c) The Greek war of independence
Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks which began in 1821.
Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture.
Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire.
The English poet Lord Byron organised funds and later went to fight in the war, where he died of fever in 1824.
Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation
d) Frankfurt parliament
Frankfurt parliament is the name of German national assembly founded during the revolution 1848. It tried to unite Germany in democratic war.
The assembly was attended by 831 deputies. The members drafted the constitution for a new German nation, to be headed by a monarch under a parliament.
But the news constitution was rejected by Friedrich Wilhelm IV, king of Prussia. The aristocracy and the military was also against the constitution.
The workers. and artisans also did not support the assembly as it was dominated by the Middle class members. Though the Frankfurt parliament failed to untie Germany but it has for reaching consequences on Germany .
The parliament was held in the church of St. Paul.
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years.
Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations.
Despite this they were denied suffrage rights during the election of the Assembly. When the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
Q2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
The Estates General as elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
Q3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
In 18th and 19th century artists represented the country as if it were a person. Marianne and Germania were both invented by artist.
Importance of the way in which they were portrayed
- Marianne was seen with red cap, the tricolour and the cockade. It underlined the idea of a people’s Nation. The Statues of Marianne were erected in the public squares to remind the public of National Symbol of unity. Images were also marked on coins and stamps
- Germany became the allegory of the German nation. Germannia wore a crown of oak leaves as German oak stands for Heroism. It was hung from the ceiling of St. Paul Church, where the Frankfurt Parliament was convened(held) to symbolise the liberal revolution.
Q4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
- Frankfurt Parliament : The Frankfurt Parliament tried its best for the unification of Germany under the leadership of Wilhelm IV, King of Persia, but it failed.
- Unification under the leadership of Prussia : This initiative of liberals was however stopped by the monarchy and military. They also got support of large landowners, known as Junkers, of Prussia. After that Prussia took on the leadership to unify Germany. It was done by its Chief Minister Otto Von Bismarck with the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy.
- Role of Bismarck : With the help of Prussian army and Bureaucracy, Bismarck completed this task. He felt that it could be done only by the princes and not by the people. He wanted to achieve his aim by not merging Prussia into Germany but rather by expanding Prussia into Germany. He followed the policy of blood and iron
- Three Wars: Three was over 7 years with Austria, Denmark and France and in Prussian victory and completed the process of German unification. In January 1871 in the Royal Palace of Versaille Kaiser Willian I , the King of Prussia was crowned as German Emperor.
Q5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was reported to the regions under French control. In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany,
2. Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
3. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new found freedom.
4. Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
Discuss ( 5 Questions )
Question 1 :
Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
The 1848 liberal revolution was led by educated middle class. This revolution led to the abdication of the monarchs in France in February 1848 and granted Universal male suffrage. France was declared a Republic. The events in France inspired middle class of Germany, Italy, Poland, Austria and Hungary to fight for National unification. The liberals demanded Nation state on parliamentary principle, freedom of press, and freedom of association. In Germany, Frankfurt Parliament tried its unification but failed. Women also participated in Revolutionary activities but denied rights equal to men.
Political Social and Economic Ideas of the liberals :-
1. Political Ideas : The liberals demanded the creation of nation States on parliamentary principles. A few liberals were in favour of granting political rights to women but most of the liberals were against it.
2. Social Ideas : Serfdom and bonded labour was abolished in most of the European countries due to the efforts of the liberals.
3. In the economic sphere the liberals Wanted freedom of markets and removal of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
Question 2 :
Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
The contribution of culture to the growth of Nationalism in Europe can be understood clearly from the following examples
1. Romanticism: It was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of Nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists were against the glorification of reasoning and science. They focus on emotions, Institutions and mystical feeling. They wanted to share a collective Heritage and common cultural past as a basis of nation. John Gott Fried, a famous romantic German philosopher claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the German common people – “Das Volk”
2. Case of Poland : Poland was partitioned by the great power- Russia, Austria and Prussia in the end of 18th century. In this century language and music played an important role to keep alive the Nationalist feeling. Language was used as a weapon against Russia. Karol Kurpinski, for example, celebrated the national struggle through his Opera and music, turning folk dance like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbol.
3. Salavic Culture : In Balkan region different salavic Nationalists struggled to define their identities and Independence. This struggle also lead to first world war.
Question 3 :
Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Class 10 History Chapter 1 Question 4 :
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
In Britain the formation of national state was not the result of a sudden Revelation as it was in France and some other European country. It was a result of long drawn out process as mentioned below : –
1. Major ethnic groups in British Isles were English, Scott and Irish. They had their own cultural and political tradition.
2. Because of its wealth and power English Nation extended its control over other nations of the islands.
3. English Parliament who got power from monarchy in 1688 played a major role in the unification of Britain.
4. The act of union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of United Kingdom.
5. After this the Scottish highlanders lost their identity in terms of language and dress.
6. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into United Kingdom in 1801 under the act of union 1801.
7. New British Nation came up with dominant English culture. Union Jack was made the national flag and “God save our Noble king” was accepted as the National Anthem
Class 10 History Chapter 1 Question 5 :
Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
1. The most serious source of Nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called Balkans.
2. The Balkans was the reason of geographical and ethnic variation composing comprising modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia , Croaia, Bosnia- Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as Slavs.
3. A large part of balkans was under the control of Ottoman Empire. The spread of ideas of romantic Nationalism in the balkans together with the disintegration of Ottoman Empire was made this region very explosive.
4. As the different Slav Nationalists struggled to define their identity and Independence, the balkans area become an area of intense conflict.
5. The balkans states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of others.
6. Matters were further complicated because the balkans also became the scene of big rivalry.
7. During this period there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as well as naval and military might.
8. These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problem unfolded.