Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 NCERT Solution

Chapter 3 of Geography Subject of Class 10 is “Water Resources. NCERT Solutions for Social Science class 10 Geography Chapter 3 are provided on this page.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources

Chapter 3 of Class 10 in Geography book is “Water Resources”. The exercise of this chapter consists of the questions about Water , renewable resources , modern and traditional methods , rain water harvesting, etc.

Geography Chapter 3 – Water Resources [ NCERT Solution ]

Chapter Chapter 3 : Water Resources
SubjectGeography – Social Science
Class 10
Study MaterialNCERT Solution ( Intext and End Exercise )
Number of Questions3 Questions
Text Book NameContemporary India II ( NCERT Text Book for Class 10 )

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Question 1 : Multiple choice questions.
(i) Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’.
(a) Region with high annual rainfall.
(b) Region having high annual rainfall and large population.
(c) Region having high annual rainfall but water is highly polluted.
(d) Region having low rainfall and low population.

Answer :
(a) Not suffering
(b) Suffering
(c) Suffering
(d) Not Suffering

(ii) Which one of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multi-purpose river projects?
(a) Multi-purpose projects bring water to those areas which suffer from water scarcity.
(b) Multi-purpose projects by regulating water flow helps to control floods.
(c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.
d) Multi-purpose projects generate electricity for our industries and our homes.

Answer : Option [c] “Multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood. ” is correct answer

(iii) Here are some false statements. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.
(a) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have helped in proper utilisation of water resources.

Answer :
The given statement is false. The correct statement is as follows-
“Multiplying urban centers with large and dense populations with urban lifestyle have added to the water and energy requirements and thus, caused the over exploitation of water resources.”

(b) Regulating and damming of rivers does not affect the river’s natural flow and its sediment flow.
Answer :
The given statement is false. The correct statement is as follows-
“Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow and causes the sediment to settle at the bottom early.”

(c) In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were not agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
Answer :
The given statement is false. The correct statement is as follows-
“In Gujrat, the Sabarmati basin farmers agitated over the higher priority given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.”

(d) Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater water harvesting has gained popularity despite high water availability due to the Indira Gandhi Canal.
Answer :
The given statement is false. The correct statement is as follows-
“Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is on the decline as plenty of water is available due to Rajasthan Canal.”

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Question 2 : Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Explain how water becomes a renewable resource.

Answer :
Water becomes renewable resource through hydrological cycle. We get fresh water directly from precipitation, surface runoff and groundwater. These 3 are continuously being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle.

(ii) What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?
Answer :
When water is available in less quantity to human beings as compared to its minimum needs it is called Water Scarcity .
Causes of water scarcity
1. Water scarcity in most cases is caused by overexploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.

2. The ever increasing number of industries have made the matter more serious by putting extra pressure on existing freshwater resource. Firstly industries require large amount of water for different activities. Secondly they use power to run their machines which is also produced by running water.
3. Growing population leads to increase in demand of water as a large number of people need water for their daily uses and also to grow food for them.

4. The ever increasing number of urban areas cities and towns has further aggravated the problem of water scarcity because thousands and thousands of residential units are coming month after month. These units and urban lifestyles need more water for different purposes leading to water scarcity.
5. To increase agricultural production water resources have been over exploited causing water scarcity.
6. The pollution of water by domestic and industrial waste, chemical waste, pesticides and insecticides and fertilizers has made water unfit for human use.

(iii) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects.
Answer :
Advantages of Multi Purpose river Projects.
1. These projects create a network channel of canals which are used to irrigate the fields.
2. The water stored in reservoirs is used for domestic and industrial use.
3. During rains, water is stored in reservoirs and hence control the floods.
4. Reservoirs can also be used for fish breeding
5. After the dam is built tree are grown around which leads to afforestation.
6. Reservoirs can be used as picnic spots. It will help many people get work even in tourism.
7. Dams are used to produce hydropower which is used in industries and homes.

Disadvantages of Multipurpose Projects.
1. Farmers are shifting to water intensive and commercial crops. This has great ecological consequences like salinization of the soil.
2. As we get more water, more water is polluted which lead to water borne disease like cholera, Malaria.
3. In case of heavy rain the reservoirs are full which submerge the downstream areas.
4. As rivers are divided into fragments, aquatic fauna can’t migrate , especially fishes.
5. During the implementation of these projects a large area is cleared out leading to deforestation.
6. As the dam is built on vast area, it acquire houses, farms ,etc of many people .

7. The farmers whose land has been acquired became landless and jobless.
8. We waste the energy in large amount which cause loss of money to government.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Question 3 : Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Discuss how rainwater harvesting in semi-arid regions of Rajasthan is carried out.

Answer :
In the arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, fields are converted into rainfed storage structure, that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like ‘Khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ in other parts.

(ii) Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are being carried out to conserve and store water.
Answer :
Modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are as under:
1. Earlier rainwater was harvested in arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan through rainwater harvesting system. Still this method is followed in many parts of our country. Example : Shillong, Gendathur, Mysore. etc
2. Even today in villages rainwater is harvested in village ponds and other small ponds in agricultural fields. This water is used to recharge the groundwater and to meet other needs . It is a modern adaptation of methods used in Rajasthan and flood plain of Bengal.

3. Rainwater is also harvested in small and big dams all over the country . This method is in use since centuries.
4. In arid and semi-arid regions rainwater is harvested in underground tank which can be used for domestic purpose.
5. In cities, big housing complexes have their own rainwater harvesting system to collect the rainwater from playgrounds , roof tops, roadside, etc .This water is used for recharging groundwater and for supplying in the houses for domestic use.