Chapter 2 of Geography Subject of Class 10 is “Forest and Wildlife Resources“. NCERT Solutions for Social Science Geography Chapter 2 are provided on this page.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources
Chapter 2 of Class 10 in Geography book is “Forest and Wildlife Resources”. The exercise of this chapter consists of the questions about Biodiversity, Agricultural Expansion, Conservation of Wildlife and Forest Resources ,etc
Geography Chapter 2 – Forest and Wildlife Resources [ NCERT Solution ]
|Chapter||Chapter 2 : Forest and Wildlife Resources|
|Subject||Geography – Social Science|
|Study Material||NCERT Solution ( Intext and End Exercise )|
|Number of Questions||5 Questions|
|Text Book Name||Contemporary India II ( NCERT Text Book for Class 10 )|
Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Question 1 : Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for the depletion of flora and fauna?
(a) Agricultural expansion.
(b) Large scale developmental projects.
(c) Grazing and fuel wood collection.
(d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.
Answer : Option [ c ] “Grazing and fuel wood collection. ” is correct answer .
(ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?
(a) Joint forest management
(b) Beej Bachao Andolan
(c) Chipko Movement
(d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries
Answer : Option [ d ] “Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries ” is correct answer .
Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Question 2 : Match the following animals with their category of existence
|Animals/Plants||Category of existence|
|Andaman wild pig||Endangered|
|Himalayan brown bear||Vulnerable|
|Pink head duck||Endemic|
|Animals/Plants||Category of existence|
|Andaman wild pig||Endemic|
|Himalayan brown bear||Rare|
|Pink head duck||Extinct|
Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Question 3 : Match the following
|Reserved forests||other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities|
|Protected forests||forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources|
|Unclassed forests||forest lands are protected from any further depletion|
|Reserved forests||forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources|
|Protected forests||forest lands are protected from any further depletion|
|Unclassed forests||other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities|
Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Question 4 : Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?
Biodiversity is the sum total of all the varieties of species of plant, animals and microorganisms living on earth. It also includes the habitat in which they live. Some scientists estimate that more than 10,000,000 species live on earth. and some believe that this number can be more
Importance of biodiversity for human life.
We are very much dependent on the ecological system for our own existence. For example the plants, animals and microorganisms recreate the quality of air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil that produce our food without which we cannot survive. Forest play a key role in the ecological system as these are also the primary producers on which whole other living being depend.
(ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain
Many human activities are responsible for the loss of flora and fauna. They can be explained as under :
1. Over Utilization of forest : In the earlier days human beings were dependent on forest only for a few things but now they are using forest to get everything possible like word, bark, leaves, rubber, medicine, food, fodder, dyes , manure, etc
2. Colonial Period : Under the colonial period large areas of forest were cleared for railways , agriculture , commercial farming, scientific forestry and mining.
3. Agriculture Expansion : Even after independence agriculture expansion continued between 1951 and 1980. According to forest survey of India, over 26,200 square kilometre of forest were cleared and converted into agricultural lands all over India
4. Multipurpose River / Valley Project or Larges Scale Development Projects : Since 1951 over 5000 square kilometre of forest area was cleared for river/ valley projects and which is still continued. For example Narmada Sagar project in Madhya Pradesh would inundate about 40,000 hectares of forest.
5. Mining : It is another important factor behind deforestation. Mining operations need big machines and labour, roads, railways etc. All these leads to deforestation. for example Buta tiger result is under threat due to dolomite mining because it has disturbed the habitat of many species and blocked the migration route of many birds and animals including the Great Indian elephant.
6. Overgrazing and Fuel Wood Collection : Some scientist say that overgrazing and fuel/fodder collection is responsible for loss of forests. Yes , its is true to some extent and overgrazing and fuel wood collection make hills slopes barren. It also damages the forest resources.
7. Other Reasons : (a)Habitat destruction, overexploitation, hunting, poaching, environmental pollution, poisoning, and forest fire are factors which have led to the decline in India’s biodiversity.
(b) Unequal access, inequitable consumption of resources and unwillingness to share the responsibility for saving environment are also leading to environmental destruction.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Question 5 : Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India?
In many parts of India various communities have contributed a lot towards conservation and protection of forest and wildlife . Their contribution cab ne explained in the following points :-
1. In Sariska Tiger Reserve : Villagers near Sariska Tiger Reserve have fought against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act.
2. In Bhairodev Dakav Sanctuary : The inhabitants of 5 villages in the Alwar district of Rajasthan have declared 12,000 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav Sanctuary declaring their own set of rules and regulations which do not allow hunting and are protecting the wildlife against any outside encroachments.
3. JFM : JFM stands for Joint Forest Management. It involves local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forest. First of all it was introduced in the Orissa in 1988 and still is is there. Its objective are as under :
(a) Involvement if local communities in the management of degraded forests.
(b) To protect the forest from encroachment, grazing, theft and fire. It also aims to improve the forest as per JFM Plan
(c) In return the members of these communities are entitled benefits like non timber forest produce and share in the timber harvested by the successful protection.
4. Sacredness : Many Communities consider some trees sacred and protect them. For example : The Mundas and Santhals of Chhotanagpur region worship mahua and Kadam tree and Tribal of Odisha and Bihar worship the Tamarind and Mango trees during weddings. Many of us consider the peepal tree and banyan tree sacred. We worships springs, ponds, mountain peaks, trees and animals and also protect them.
5. In and around Bishnoi villages in Rajasthan herds of black buck , nilgai and peacocks can be seen as integral part of the community and nobody harms them.
6. Beej Bachao Andolan : As we know improper farming techniques are also responsible for depletion of our biodiversity. So many farmers and citizens group support the Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdanya. They are using various crop production method which don’t use synthetic chemical for growing crops . These are also called economically viable.
7. Chipko Movement : The famous chipko movement led by sunderlal bahuguna and many woman of chamoli district , saved more than 12000 trees square kilometer area of forest just by hugging the tree when the contractors man tried to cut them.
(ii) Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.
Good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife are those practices in which local communities are involved . Local communities should be at the centre stage in decision making. Accept only those economic and development activities that are people centric environment friendly and economically rewarding.
JFM is a good example of this type of practice. Chipko movement in Himalayas and Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdanya are also some other example of such practices. Communities should be encouraged to conserve forest and wildlife through their culture and traditions .
Example – Bishnoi Community in Rajasthan and Tribals in Chhotanagpur Region.