CBSE Class 12 Geography Notes NCERT Solutions Sample Papers

Class 12 Geography Study Notes Previous year question papers , sample paper , NCERT Solutions, and all other study material for Geography subject of class 12th are present here for students and teachers.

Class 12 Geography

Geography is introduced as an elective subject at the senior secondary stage. After ten years of general education, students branch out at the beginning of this stage and are exposed to the rigors of the discipline for the first time. Being an entry point for the higher education, students choose Geography for pursuing their academic interest and, therefore, need a broader and deeper understanding of the subject.

CBSE Class 12 Geography consists of the following textbook ( published by NCERT)
1. Fundamental of Human Geography , published by NCERT
2. India : People and Economy , published by NCERT
3. Practical Work in Geography Part II , published by NCERT

Resource ( Study Material )

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus
CBSE Class 12 Geography Study Notes
CBSE Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions
CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Paper
CBSE Class 12 Geography Model Test Paper
CBSE Class 12 Geography Previous Year Question Papers

CBSE Class 12th Geography Syllabus

Part A : Fundamentals of Human Geography
Unit 1 : Human Geography
 Nature and Scope

Unit 2 : People
 The World Population- distribution, density and growth
 Population change – Components of population change, Demographic Transition
 Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit 3 : Human Activities
 Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries
 Secondary activities- concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries;
 Tertiary activities – concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities
 Quaternary activities- concept; people engaged in quaternary activities – case study from selected countries

Unit 4 : Transport, Communication and Trade
 Land transport – roads, railways; transcontinental railways Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes
 Air transport- Intercontinental air routes Oil and gas pipelines
 Satellite communication and cyber space-importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS
 International trade- bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade; role of WTO in international trade

Part B : India: People and Economy
Unit 6 : People
 Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population – linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population

Unit 7 : Human Settlements
 Rural settlements – types and distribution
 Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification

Unit 8 : Resources and Development
 Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use; geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber); agricultural development and problems
 Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management

 Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation
 Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study)

Unit 9 : Transport, Communication and International Trade
 Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication net works
 International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports

Unit 10 : Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems
 Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal
 Urbanization, rural-urban migration; problems of slums
Land degradation

Part C : Practical Work in Geography Part II
Unit 1 : Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping

 Type and Sources of data: Primary, Secondary and other sources
 Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency
 Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; choropleth and isopleths maps

Unit 2 : Spatial Information Technology
 Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; raster and vector data, data input, editing and topology building; data analysis; overlay and buffer.

Reference : CBSE Academics


CBSE Class 12 Geography Study Notes

NCERT Text Book Class 12 Geography – “Fundamental of Human Geography”
Study Notes Chapter 1 ( Human Geography : Nature and Scope )
Study Notes Chapter 2 ( The World Population : Distribution, Density and Growth )
Study Notes Chapter 3 ( Population Composition )
Study Notes Chapter 4 ( Human Development )
Study Notes Chapter 5 ( Primary Activities )
Study Notes Chapter 6 ( Secondary Activities )
Study Notes Chapter 7 ( Tertiary and Quaternary Activities )
Study Notes Chapter 8 ( Transport and Communication )
Study Notes Chapter 9 ( International Trade )
Study Notes Chapter 10 ( Human Settlements ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022-23 ]

NCERT Text Book Class 12 Geography – “India : People and Economy “
Study Notes Chapter 1 ( Population : Distribution , Density, Growth, and Composition )
Study Notes Chapter 2 ( Migration : Types , Causes and Consequences ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022-23 ]
Study Notes Chapter 3 ( Human Development ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022-23 ]
Study Notes Chapter 4 ( Human Settlements )
Study Notes Chapter 5 ( Land Resources and Agriculture )
Study Notes Chapter 6 ( Water Resources )




Study Notes Chapter 7 ( Mineral and Energy Resources )
Study Notes Chapter 8 ( Manufacturing Industries ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022-23 ]
Study Notes Chapter 9 ( Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context )
Study Notes Chapter 10 ( Transport and Communication )
Study Notes Chapter 11 ( International Trade )
Study Notes Chapter 12 ( Geographical Perspective on Selected issues and Problems )

NCERT Text Book Class 12 Geography – “Practical Work in Geography Part II”
Study Notes Chapter 1 ( Data – Its Source and Compilation )
Study Notes Chapter 2 ( Data Processing )
Study Notes Chapter 3 ( Graphical Representation of Data )
Study Notes Chapter 4 ( Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022-23 ]
Study Notes Chapter 5 ( Field Surveys ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022-23 ]
Study Notes Chapter 6 ( Spatial Information Technology )


CBSE Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions

NCERT Text Book Class 12 Geography – “Fundamental of Human Geography”
NCERT Solution Chapter 1 ( Human Geography : Nature and Scope )
NCERT Solution Chapter 2 ( The World Population : Distribution, Density and Growth )
NCERT Solution Chapter 3 ( Population Composition )
NCERT Solution Chapter 4 ( Human Development )
NCERT Solution Chapter 5 ( Primary Activities )
NCERT Solution Chapter 6 ( Secondary Activities )
NCERT Solution Chapter 7 ( Tertiary and Quaternary Activities )
NCERT Solution Chapter 8 ( Transport and Communication )
NCERT Solution Chapter 9 ( International Trade )
NCERT Solution Chapter 10 ( Human Settlements ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022-23 ]

NCERT Text Book Class 12 Geography – “India : People and Economy “
NCERT Solution Chapter 1 ( Population : Distribution , Density, Growth, and Composition )
NCERT Solution Chapter 2 ( Migration : Types , Causes and Consequences ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022-23 ]
NCERT Solution Chapter 3 ( Human Development ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022-23 ]
NCERT Solution Chapter 4 ( Human Settlements )
NCERT Solution Chapter 5 ( Land Resources and Agriculture )
NCERT Solution Chapter 6 ( Water Resources )




NCERT Solution Chapter 7 ( Mineral and Energy Resources )
NCERT Solution Chapter 8 ( Manufacturing Industries ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022-23 ]
NCERT Solution Chapter 9 ( Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context )
NCERT Solution Chapter 10 ( Transport and Communication )
NCERT Solution Chapter 11 ( International Trade )
NCERT Solution Chapter 12 ( Geographical Perspective on Selected issues and Problems )

NCERT Text Book Class 12 Geography – “Practical Work in Geography Part II”
NCERT Solution Chapter 1 ( Data – Its Source and Compilation )
NCERT Solution Chapter 2 ( Data Processing )
NCERT Solution Chapter 3 ( Graphical Representation of Data )
NCERT Solution Chapter 4 ( Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022-23 ]
NCERT Solution Chapter 5 ( Field Surveys ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022-23 ]
NCERT Solution Chapter 6 ( Spatial Information Technology )


CBSE Class 12 Geography Previous Year Question Papers

CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2022
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2021
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2020
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2019
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2018
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2017
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2016
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2015
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2014
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2013
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2012
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2011
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper 2010





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