Class 12 Biology Study Notes Previous year question papers , sample paper , NCERT Solutions, and all other study material for Biology subject of class 12th are present here for students and teachers.
Class 12 Biology
CBSE Class 12 Biology consists of the following textbook ( published by NCERT)
1. Biology, Class-XII, Published by NCERT
2. Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also)
3. Biology Supplementary Material (Revised). Available on CBSE website.
Resource ( Study Material )
|CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus|
|CBSE Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions|
|CBSE Class 12 Biology Previous Year Question Papers|
CBSE Class 12th Biology Syllabus
Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis -spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).
Chapter-4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness). Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution
Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.
Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications
Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Applications
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.
Unit-X Ecology and Environment
Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Aboitic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations)
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles)
Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
Reference : CBSE Academics
CBSE Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions
NCERT Text Book Biology Class 12- “Biology”
NCERT Solutions Chapter 1 ( Reproduction in Organisms ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022 – 23 ] NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 ( Sexual Reproduction in flowering Plants )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 3 ( Human Reproduction )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 4 ( Reproductive Health )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 5 ( Principles of Inheritance and Variation )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 6 ( Molecular Basis of Inheritance )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 7 ( Evolution )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 8 ( Human Health and Diseases )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 9 ( Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022 – 23 ]
NCERT Solutions Chapter 10 ( Microbes in Human Welfare )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 11 ( Biotechnology – Principles and Processes )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 12 ( Biotechnology and its Applications )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 13 ( Organisms and Populations )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 14 ( Ecosystem )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 15 ( Biodiversity and Conservation )
NCERT Solutions Chapter 16 ( Environmental Issues ) [ Not Included in Syllabus for 2022 – 23 ]
CBSE Class 12 Biology Previous Year Question Papers
CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper 2021
CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper 2020
CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper 2019
CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper 2018
CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper 2017
CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper 2016
CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper 2015
CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper 2014
CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper 2013